Integrated Cloud, Land-surface, and Aerosol System Study (ICLASS) Science Focus Area


Principal Investigators

Jerome Fast — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Larry Berg — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Adam Varble — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
John Shilling — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


Jingyi Chen — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Johannes Muelmenstaedt — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Matthew Christiansen — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mikhail Ovcinnikov — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Laura Fierce — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Yun Qian — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Zhe Feng — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Koichi Sakaguchi — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Brian Gaudet — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Manish Shrivastava — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Andrew Geiss — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Sheng-Lun Tai — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Samson Hagos — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Heng Xiao — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Gourihar Kulkarni — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Zhao Yang — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Ying Liu — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Rahul Zaveri — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Po-Lun Ma — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Alla Zelenyuk — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
James Marquis — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


Rational and Challenges: Earth system models (ESMs), high-resolution models, and observations are key tools for improving our understanding of the natural and human-influenced atmospheric processes affecting Earth’s climate. Despite recent scientific advances, models still contain biases arising from knowledge gaps and imperfect parameterizations of important physical and chemical atmospheric processes. While the impacts of these biases are multifaceted, much of the uncertainty has been attributed to short-lived climate forcers, such as aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) processes. Challenges associated with ACI uncertainties can be divided into three broad categories of atmospheric processes associated with 1) the lifecycle of aerosol populations, 2) the lifecycle of cloud populations, and 3) land–atmosphere coupling. An important complicating factor is that ACI processes depend on the interaction of aerosol and cloud populations that are often highly variable in space and time.

Objectives: Our long-term vision, established in FY 2018, is to transform our understanding of climate-relevant processes and provide more robust model representations of the climate system through the integration of new knowledge on cloud and aerosol populations, and their interactions with each other and the Earth’s surface. Three overarching science questions guide this vision:

  • Q.1 How does the land surface interact with cloud and aerosol processes, and how are these interactions manifested in the climate system?
  • Q.2 What are the key factors that control transitions in cloud populations, and how are these transitions affected by interactions with evolving aerosol, meteorological, and precipitation conditions?
  • Q.3 What are the key processes that control the evolving composition and size distribution of aerosols and consequently the variability of aerosol microphysical, optical, and cloud-nucleating properties?

The proposed research is organized into three Research Elements corresponding to Q.1–Q.3, targeting key processes that are poorly represented or neglected by ESMs. They are also inherently interconnected over multiple spatiotemporal scales and therefore must be addressed in an integrated way to advance process-level understanding and model parameterizations. While the Research Elements are interconnected and inform one another, the effects of land–atmosphere coupling and clouds on aerosol populations are separated out as cross-cutting interdisciplinary activities because they require substantial dedicated collaborations between the Research Elements.

Research Element 1 focuses on natural processes and anthropogenic perturbations associated with feedbacks and vertical exchanges of heat, moisture, momentum, and aerosols within the boundary layer that also influence the lifecycle of shallow convective clouds. We are currently expanding anthropogenic perturbations from irrigation to include urbanization effects

Research Element 2 focuses on the initiation, growth, organization, and properties of cloud populations including their multi-scale thermodynamic and dynamic interactions with environmental conditions in which they are embedded. In addition to research on convective cloud populations over land, we are currently expanding this research to include marine stratocumulus.

Research Element 3 focuses on secondary organic aerosols from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors, their mixing state with other constituents, and their cloud-nucleating properties.

Cross-cutting activities currently focus on the effects of land–atmosphere coupling and clouds on aerosols which will integrate findings of Research Elements 1 – 3. In this way, we will obtain a deeper and more robust understanding of the interrelationships among land–atmosphere coupling, cloud populations, and carbonaceous aerosols that ultimately influence ACI.


Our approach combines measurements and data discovery with high-resolution multi-scale modeling to advance the fundamental understanding of processes associated with our three overarching science questions. Since many of these processes are subgrid-scale in ESMs or influenced by subgrid-scale effects, it is important to assess their impacts on larger-scale dynamics and thermodynamics that control climate and vice versa.

Measurements and Data Discovery: Our research fundamentally relies on analyses of measurements from long-term Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites (SGP, TWP, ENA), several ARM field campaigns, the LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) activity, and laboratory studies using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) environmental chamber. Cross-cutting activities that consist of interdisciplinary hypotheses focus on GoAmazon, HI-SCALE, and CACTI datasets. We anticipate that measurements from SAIL, TRACER, and EPCAPE and the new long-term ARM AMF deployment in the southeastern U.S. (SEUS) will be useful to address the three overarching science questions in the future once those measurements become available. Analyses of field measurements and modeling needs drive hypothesis-based laboratory experiments in Research Element 3 that focus on investigating secondary organic aerosol formation from anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources. Supplemental non-ARM data will also be necessary, particularly satellite and surface network data that spatially and temporally contextualize detailed ARM long-term site and field campaign measurements.

High-Resolution Multi-Scale Modeling: Multi-scale modeling studies are critical for filling in observational gaps and testing hypotheses based on observational evidence. Many of the processes associated with land–atmosphere coupling, clouds, aerosols, and their interactions occur at small scales and thus a multifaceted approach is needed. Three modeling approaches will be used: (1) large-eddy simulation (LES) configurations to explicitly resolve many boundary-layer and cloud processes using grid spacings of 10–100 meters that leverage LASSO, (2) km-scale simulations to study processes over regional scales and a wide range of atmospheric conditions, and (3) sectional (MOSAIC) and particle-resolved (PartMC- MOSAIC) aerosol box modeling coupled with a cloud parcel model to explicitly resolve detailed aerosol chemistry and mixing state. Where possible, we will take advantage of standard or regional-refined, km-scale E3SM simulations that describe the representation of land–atmosphere coupling, cloud population transitions, and carbonaceous aerosols in relation to observations and our higher-resolution simulations.

Process-Level Understanding: Findings from our analyses of ARM and laboratory data will be coupled with all three modeling approaches and new, complementary novel Lagrangian and machine learning (ML) perspectives to develop an improved understanding of a wide range of atmospheric processes associated with the three overarching questions. This improved understanding is critical to reducing climate prediction uncertainties associated with ACI and the water cycle. By performing in-depth comparisons of measurements and multi-scale model simulations, we will also be able to identify deficient or missing processes, quantify the importance of subgrid-scale processes, and determine the accuracy of process representations in models, helping to inform the development and improvement of next-generation parameterizations and our measurement and modeling activities.

Expected Outcomes: Through a measurements-to-modeling approach that synthesizes ARM measurements, laboratory experiments, multi-scale numerical simulations, and parameterization development, our proposed research will

  1. Elucidate the partitioning of surface fluxes and multi-scale feedbacks between soil moisture, lateral subsurface flow, boundary-layer structure, clouds, precipitation, radiation, and aerosols;
  2. Advance the understanding and model parameterization of processes controlling shallow cloud evolution, deep convection initiation, and organization of cloud populations;
  3. Obtain a more detailed mechanistic understanding and model representation of SOA formation and its mixing state; and
  4. Provide data products and tools derived from ARM and other sources of measurements to the atmospheric community.

Our cross-cutting activities will

  1. Assess the subgrid-scale variability and interrelationships of processes that connect land–atmosphere coupling and cloud populations to sources, sinks, and properties of carbonaceous aerosol that influence the larger-scale aerosol budget and
  2. Obtain a more robust predictive representation of these key climate-relevant processes.

We expect new or improved parameterizations of convective cloud populations and organic aerosol processes to be developed that will be suitable for regional and ESMs, while some observational and modeling analyses will provide the foundation needed to develop parameterizations as part of future research and other projects.

To learn more about this SFA, read this ASR feature story.

Illustration of the primary research priorities and overall approach guiding the ICLASS Science Focus Area.

Related Publications

Su T and Y Zhang. 2024. "Deep-learning-derived planetary boundary layer height from conventional meteorological measurements." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 24(11), 10.5194/acp-24-6477-2024.

Geiss A, M Christensen, A Varble, T Yuan, and H Song. 2024. "Self-Supervised Cloud Classification." Artificial Intelligence for the Earth Systems, 3(1), 10.1175/AIES-D-23-0036.1. ONLINE.

Chen J, S Hagos, H Xiao, J Fast, C Lu, A Varble, Z Feng, and J Sun. 2023. "The Effects of Shallow Cumulus Cloud Shape on Interactions Among Clouds and Mixing With Near‐Cloud Environments." Geophysical Research Letters, 50(24), e2023GL106334, 10.1029/2023GL106334.

Varble A, A Igel, H Morrison, W Grabowski, and Z Lebo. 2023. "Opinion: A critical evaluation of the evidence for aerosol invigoration of deep convection." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 23(21), 10.5194/acp-23-13791-2023.

Zhang C, S Hai, Y Gao, Y Wang, S Zhang, L Sheng, B Zhao, S Wang, J Jiang, X Huang, X Shen, J Sun, A Lupascu, M Shrivastava, J Fast, W Cheng, X Guo, M Chu, N Ma, J Hong, Q Wang, X Yao, and H Gao. 2023. "Substantially positive contributions of new particle formation to cloud condensation nuclei under low supersaturation in China based on numerical model improvements." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 23(18), 10.5194/acp-23-10713-2023.

Hagos S, Z Feng, S Tai, and J Chen. 2023. "Regional variability in the environmental controls of precipitation regimes in the tropics." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128(18), e2023JD038927, 10.1029/2023JD038927.

Lu C, L Zhu, Y Liu, F Mei, J Fast, M Pekour, S Luo, X Xu, X He, J Li, and S Gao. 2023. "Observational study of relationships between entrainment rate, homogeneity of mixing, and cloud droplet relative dispersion." Atmospheric Research, 293, 106900, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2023.106900.

Xiao H, M Ovchinnikov, L Berg, and J Mülmenstädt. 2023. "Evaluating Shallow Convection Parameterization Assumptions with a qt-w Quadrant Analysis." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 15(8), s2022MS003526, 10.1029/2022MS003526.

Feldman D, A Aiken, W Boos, R Carroll, V Chandrasekar, S Collis, J Creamean, G de Boer, J Deems, P DeMott, J Fan, A Flores, D Gochis, M Grover, T Hill, A Hodshire, E Hulm, C Hume, R Jackson, F Junyent, A Kennedy, M Kumjian, E Levin, J Lundquist, J O’Brien, M Raleigh, J Reithel, A Rhoades, K Rittger, W Rudisill, Z Sherman, E Siirila-Woodburn, S Skiles, J Smith, R Sullivan, A Theisen, M Tuftedal, A Varble, A Wiedlea, S Wielandt, K Williams, and Z Xu. 2023. "The Surface Atmosphere Integrated Field Laboratory (SAIL) Campaign." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 104(12), 10.1175/BAMS-D-22-0049.1.

Sanchez K, D Painemal, M Brown, E Crosbie, F Gallo, J Hair, C Hostetler, C Jordan, C Robinson, A Scarino, T Shingler, M Shook, K Thornhill, E Wiggins, E Winstead, L Ziemba, S Chambers, A Williams, R Humphries, M Keywood, J Ward, L Cravigan, I McRobert, C Flynn, G Kulkarni, L Russell, G Roberts, G McFarquhar, A Nenes, S Woods, J Reid, J Small-Griswold, S Brooks, S Kirschler, C Voigt, J Wang, D Delene, P Quinn, and R Moore. 2023. "Multi-campaign ship and aircraft observations of marine cloud condensation nuclei and droplet concentrations." Scientific Data, 10(1), 10.1038/s41597-023-02372-z.

Wang J, J Wang, R Cai, C Liu, J Jiang, W Nie, J Wang, N Moteki, R Zaveri, X Huang, N Ma, G Chen, Z Wang, Y Jin, J Cai, Y Zhang, X Chi, B Holanda, J Xing, T Liu, X Qi, Q Wang, C Pöhlker, H Su, Y Cheng, S Wang, J Hao, M Andreae, and A Ding. 2023. "Unified theoretical framework for black carbon mixing state allows greater accuracy of climate effect estimation." Nature Communications, 14(1), 10.1038/s41467-023-38330-x.

Marquis J, Z Feng, A Varble, T Nelson, A Houston, J Peters, J Mulholland, and J Hardin. 2023. "Near-Cloud Atmospheric Ingredients for Deep Convection Initiation." Monthly Weather Review, 151(5), 10.1175/MWR-D-22-0243.1.

Reyes-Villegas E, D Lowe, J Johnson, K Carslaw, E Darbyshire, M Flynn, J Allan, H Coe, Y Chen, O Wild, S Archer-Nicholls, A Archibald, S Singh, M Shrivastava, R Zaveri, V Singh, G Beig, R Sokhi, and G McFiggans. 2023. "Simulating organic aerosol in Delhi with WRF-Chem using the volatility-basis-set approach: exploring model uncertainty with a Gaussian process emulator." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 23(10), 10.5194/acp-23-5763-2023.

Feng Z, J Hardin, H Barnes, J Li, L Leung, A Varble, and Z Zhang. 2023. "PyFLEXTRKR: a flexible feature tracking Python software for convective cloud analysis." Geoscientific Model Development, 16(10), 10.5194/gmd-16-2753-2023.

Yang Z, A Varble, L Berg, Y Qian, S Tai, J Chen, W Gustafson, Z Feng, and Y Liu. 2023. "Sensitivity of Precipitation Displacement of a Simulated MCS to Changes in Land Surface Conditions." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , e2022JD037642, 10.1029/2022JD037642.

Chen J, S Hagos, H Xiao, J Fast, and Z Feng. 2023. "Multiscale Analysis of Surface Heterogeneity–Induced Convection on Isentropic Coordinates." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 80(4), 10.1175/JAS-D-21-0198.1.

Rasool Q, M Shrivastava, Y Liu, B Gaudet, and B Zhao. 2023. "Modeling the Impact of the Organic Aerosol Phase State on Multiphase OH Reactive Uptake Kinetics and the Resultant Heterogeneous Oxidation Timescale of Organic Aerosol in the Amazon Rainforest." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, 7(5), 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.2c00366.

Öktem R, D Romps, and A Varble. 2023. "No warm-phase invigoration of convection detected during GoAmazon." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, , 10.1175/JAS-D-22-0241.1. ONLINE.

Chen J, S Hagos, Z Feng, J Fast, and H Xiao. 2023. "The Role of Cloud–Cloud Interactions in the Life Cycle of Shallow Cumulus Clouds." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 80(3), 10.1175/JAS-D-22-0004.1.

Zhang J, M Shrivastava, A Zelenyuk, R Zaveri, J Surratt, M Riva, D Bell, and M Glasius. 2023. "Observationally Constrained Modeling of the Reactive Uptake of Isoprene-Derived Epoxydiols under Elevated Relative Humidity and Varying Acidity of Seed Aerosol Conditions." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, 7(4), 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.2c00358.

Humphries R, M Keywood, J Ward, J Harnwell, S Alexander, A Klekociuk, K Hara, I McRobert, A Protat, J Alroe, L Cravigan, B Miljevic, Z Ristovski, R Schofield, S Wilson, C Flynn, G Kulkarni, G Mace, G McFarquhar, S Chambers, A Williams, and A Griffiths. 2023. "Measurement report: Understanding the seasonal cycle of Southern Ocean aerosols." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 23(6), 10.5194/acp-23-3749-2023.

Kulkarni G, F Mei, J Shilling, J Wang, R Reveggino, C Flynn, A Zelenyuk, and J Fast. 2023. "Cloud Condensation Nuclei Closure Study Using Airborne Measurements over the Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128(5), e2022JD037964, 10.1029/2022JD037964.

Saliba G, D Bell, K Suski, J Fast, D Imre, G Kulkarni, F Mei, J Mülmenstädt, M Pekour, J Shilling, J Tomlinson, A Varble, J Wang, J Thornton, and A Zelenyuk. 2023. "Aircraft measurements of single particle size and composition reveal aerosol size and mixing state dictate their activation into cloud droplets." Environmental Science: Atmospheres, , 10.1039/D3EA00052D.

Schobesberger S, E D'Ambro, L Vettikkat, B Lee, Q Peng, D Bell, J Shilling, M Shrivastava, M Pekour, J Fast, and J Thornton. 2023. "Airborne flux measurements of ammonia over the southern Great Plains using chemical ionization mass spectrometry." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 16(2), 10.5194/amt-16-247-2023.

Vandergrift G, N Lata, S Mathai, A Ijaz, Z Cheng, M Shrivastava, J Zhang, A Md Shawon, G Kulkarni, L Mazzoleni, W Kew, and S China. 2023. "Case study evaluation of size-resolved molecular composition and phase state of carbonaceous particles in wildfire influenced smoke from the Pacific Northwest." Environmental Science: Atmospheres, 3(9), 10.1039/D3EA00058C.

O’Donnell S, A Akherati, Y He, A Hodshire, J Shilling, C Kuang, J Fast, F Mei, Siegfried Schobesberger7, J Thornton, J Smith, S Jathar, and J Pierce. 2023. "Look Up: Probing the Vertical Profile of New Particle Formation and Growth in the Planetary Boundary Layer with Models and Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128(3), e2022JD037525, 10.1029/2022JD037525.

Li Y, R Xu, K Yang, Y Liu, S Wang, S Zhou, Z Yang, X Feng, C He, Z Xu, and W Zhao. 2022. "Contribution of Tibetan Plateau ecosystems to local and remote precipitation through moisture recycling." Global Change Biology, 29, 10.1111/gcb.16495.

Zhao B, J Fast, M Shrivastava, N Donahue, Y Gao, J Shilling, Y Liu, R Zaveri, B Gaudet, S Wang, J Wang, Z Li, and J Fan. 2022. "Formation Process of Particles and Cloud Condensation Nuclei Over the Amazon Rainforest: The Role of Local and Remote New‐Particle Formation." Geophysical Research Letters, 49(22), e2022GL100940, 10.1029/2022GL100940.

Chu C, J Zhai, Y Han, J Ye, R Zaveri, S Martin, and H Hung. 2022. "New Particle Formation and Growth Dynamics for α-Pinene Ozonolysis in a Smog Chamber and Implications for Ambient Environments." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, 6(12), 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.2c00161.

Fast J, D Bell, G Kulkarni, J Liu, F Mei, G Saliba, J Shilling, K Suski, J Tomlinson, J Wang, R Zaveri, and A Zelenyuk. 2022. "Using aircraft measurements to characterize subgrid-scale variability of aerosol properties near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22(17), 10.5194/acp-22-11217-2022.

Yabra M, M Nicolini, P Borque, Y Skabar, and P Salio. 2022. "Observational study of the South American low-level jet during the SALLJEX." International Journal of Climatology, 42(16), 10.1002/joc.7857.

Chand D, L Berg, J Tagestad, B Putzenlechner, Z Yang, S Tai, and J Fast. 2022. "Fine scale variability in Green Vegetation Fraction Over the Southern Great Plains using Sentinel-2 satellite: A case study." Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, 27, 10.1016/j.rsase.2022.100799.

Borque P, A Varble, and J Hardin. 2022. "Peak Rain Rate Sensitivity to Observed Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Turbulence in Continental Warm Shallow Clouds During CACTI." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , e2022JD036864, 10.1029/2022JD036864.

Ruan X, C Zhao, R Zaveri, P He, X Wang, J Shao, and L Geng. 2022. "Simulations of aerosol pH in China using WRF-Chem (v4.0): sensitivities of aerosol pH and its temporal variations during haze episodes." Geoscientific Model Development, 15(15), 10.5194/gmd-15-6143-2022.

Liu J, E D’Ambro, B Lee, S Schobesberger, D Bell, R Zaveri, A Zelenyuk, J Thornton, and J Shilling. 2022. "Monoterpene Photooxidation in a Continuous-Flow Chamber: SOA Yields and Impacts of Oxidants, NOx, , and VOC Precursors." Environmental Science & Technology, 56(17), 10.1021/acs.est.2c02630.

Mei F, M Pekour, D Dexheimer, G de Boer, R Cook, J Tomlinson, B Schmid, L Goldberger, R Newsom, and J Fast. 2022. "Observational data from uncrewed systems over Southern Great Plains." Earth System Science Data, 14(7), 10.5194/essd-14-3423-2022.

Peters J, H Morrison, T Nelson, J Marquis, J Mulholland, and C Nowotarski. 2022. "The Influence of Shear on Deep Convection Initiation. Part I: Theory." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 79(6), 10.1175/JAS-D-21-0145.1.

Peters J, H Morrison, T Nelson, J Marquis, J Mulholland, and C Nowotarski. 2022. "The Influence of Shear on Deep Convection Initiation. Part II: Simulations." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 79(6), 10.1175/JAS-D-21-0144.1.

Chug D, F Dominguez, and Z Yang. 2022. "The Amazon and La Plata River Basins as Moisture Sources of South America: Climatology and Intraseasonal Variability." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127(12), e2021JD035455, 10.1029/2021JD035455.

Feng Z, A Varble, J Hardin, J Marquis, A Hunzinger, Z Zhang, and M Thieman. 2022. "Deep Convection Initiation, Growth, and Environments in the Complex Terrain of Central Argentina during CACTI." Monthly Weather Review, 150(5), 10.1175/MWR-D-21-0237.1.

Yang B, M Wang, G Zhang, Z Guo, Y Wang, X Xu, G Dai, A Huang, Y Zhang, and Y Qian. 2022. "Parameterizing Convective Organization Effects With a Moisture‐PDF Approach in Climate Models: Concept and a Regional Case Simulation." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 14(5), e2021MS002942, 10.1029/2021MS002942.

Gettelman A, A Geer, R Forbes, G Carmichael, G Feingold, D Posselt, G Stephens, S van den Heever, A Varble, and P Zuidema. 2022. "The future of Earth system prediction: Advances in model-data fusion." Science Advances, 8(14), 10.1126/sciadv.abn3488.

Pande P, M Shrivastava, J Shilling, A Zelenyuk, Q Zhang, Q Chen, N Ng, Y Zhang, M Takeuchi, T Nah, Q Rasool, Y Zhang, B Zhao, and Y Liu. 2022. "Novel Application of Machine Learning Techniques for Rapid Source Apportionment of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Datasets." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, 6(4), 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.1c00344.

Burrows S, C McCluskey, G Cornwell, I Steinke, K Zhang, B Zhao, M Zawadowicz, A Raman, G Kulkarni, S China, A Zelenyuk, and P DeMott. 2022. "Ice‐nucleating particles that impact clouds and climate: Observational and modeling research needs." Reviews of Geophysics, 60(2), e2021RG000745, 10.1029/2021RG000745.

Ma P, B Harrop, V Larson, R Neale, A Gettelman, H Morrison, H Wang, K Zhang, S Klein, M Zelinka, Y Zhang, Y Qian, J Yoon, C Jones, M Huang, S Tai, B Singh, P Bogenschutz, X Zheng, W Lin, J Quaas, H Chepfer, M Brunke, X Zeng, J Mülmenstädt, S Hagos, Z Zhang, H Song, X Liu, M Pritchard, H Wan, J Wang, Q Tang, P Caldwell, J Fan, L Berg, J Fast, M Taylor, J Golaz, S Xie, P Rasch, and L Leung. 2022. "Better calibration of cloud parameterizations and subgrid effects increases the fidelity of the E3SM Atmosphere Model version 1." Geoscientific Model Development, 15(7), 10.5194/gmd-15-2881-2022.

Wu P and M Ovchinnikov. 2022. "Cloud morphology evolution in Arctic cold‐air outbreak: two cases during COMBLE period." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127(10), e2021JD035966, 10.1029/2021JD035966.

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Geerts B, SE Giangrande, GM McFarquhar, L Xue, SJ Abel, JM Comstock, S Crewell, PJ DeMott, K Ebell, P Field, T Hill, A Hunzinger, MP Jensen, KL Johnson, T Juliano, P Kollias, B Kosovic, C Lackner, E Luke, C Lüpkes, AA Matthews, R Neggers, M Ovchinnikov, H Powers, MD Shupe, T Spengler, B Swanson, M Tjernström, AK Theisen, N Wales, M Wendisch, and P Wu. 2022. "The COMBLE campaign: a study of marine boundary-layer clouds in Arctic cold-air outbreaks." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 103(5), 10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0044.1.

Barber K, C Burleyson, Z Feng, and S Hagos. 2022. "The Influence of Shallow Cloud Populations on Transitions to Deep Convection in the Amazon." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 79(3), 10.1175/JAS-D-21-0141.1.

Veals P, A Varble, J Russell, J Hardin, and E Zipser. 2022. "Indications of a Decrease in the Depth of Deep Convective Cores with Increasing Aerosol Concentration during the CACTI Campaign." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 79(3), 10.1175/JAS-D-21-0119.1.

Nelson T, J Marquis, J Peters, and K Friedrich. 2022. "Environmental controls on simulated deep moist convection initiation occurring during RELAMPAGO-CACTI." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 79(7), 10.1175/JAS-D-21-0226.1.

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Wang J, R Wood, M Jensen, J Chiu, Y Liu, K Lamer, N Desai, S Giangrande, D Knopf, P Kollias, A Laskin, X Liu, C Lu, D Mechem, F Mei, M Starzec, J Tomlinson, Y Wang, S Yum, G Zheng, A Aiken, E Azevedo, Y Blanchard, S China, X Dong, F Gallo, S Gao, V Ghate, S Glienke, L Goldberger, J Hardin, C Kuang, E Luke, A Matthews, M Miller, R Moffet, M Pekour, B Schmid, A Sedlacek, R Shaw, J Shilling, A Sullivan, K Suski, D Veghte, R Weber, M Wyant, J Yeom, M Zawadowicz, and Z Zhang. 2022. "Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA)." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 103(2), 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0220.1.

Fung K, C Heald, J Kroll, S Wang, D Jo, A Gettelman, Z Lu, X Liu, R Zaveri, E Apel, D Blake, J Jimenez, P Campuzano-Jost, P Veres, T Bates, J Shilling, and M Zawadowicz. 2022. "Exploring dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation and implications for global aerosol radiative forcing." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22(2), 10.5194/acp-22-1549-2022.

Hagos S, J Chen, K Barber, K Sakaguchi, R Plant, Z Feng, and H Xiao. 2022. "A Machine Learning Assisted Stochastic Cloud Population Model as a Parameterization of Cumulus Convection." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 14(7), e2021MS002808, 10.1029/2021MS002808.

D’Ambro E, N Hyttinen, K Møller, S Iyer, R Otkjær, D Bell, J Liu, F Lopez-Hilfiker, S Schobesberger, J Shilling, A Zelenyuk, H Kjaergaard, J Thornton, and T Kurtén. 2022. "Pathways to Highly Oxidized Products in the Δ3-Carene + OH System." Environmental Science & Technology, 56(4), 10.1021/acs.est.1c06949.

Zaveri R, J Wang, J Fan, Y Zhang, J Shilling, A Zelenyuk, F Mei, R Newsom, M Pekour, J Tomlinson, J Comstock, M Shrivastava, E Fortner, L Machado, P Artaxo, and S Martin. 2022. "Rapid growth of anthropogenic organic nanoparticles greatly alters cloud life cycle in the Amazon rainforest." Science Advances, 8(2), 10.1126/sciadv.abj0329.

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Chen H, L Zhang, F Zhang, K Davis, T Lauvaux, S Pal, B Gaudet, and J DiGangi. 2019. "Evaluation of Regional CO Mole Fractions in the ECMWF CAMS Real‐Time Atmospheric Analysis and NOAA CarbonTracker Near‐Real‐Time Reanalysis With Airborne Observations From ACT‐America Field Campaigns." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(14), 10.1029/2018JD029992.

Rowe A, R Houze, S Brodzik, and M Zuluaga. 2019. "The Diurnal and Microphysical Characteristics of MJO Rain Events during DYNAMO." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 2019(1), 10.1175/JAS-D-18-0316.1.

Tang Q, S Klein, S Xie, W Lin, J Golaz, E Roesler, M Taylor, P Rasch, D Bader, L Berg, P Caldwell, S Giangrande, R Neale, Y Qian, L Riihimaki, C Zender, Y Zhang, and X Zheng. 2019. "Regionally refined test bed in E3SM atmosphere model version 1 (EAMv1) and applications for high-resolution modeling." Geoscientific Model Development, 12(7), 10.5194/gmd-12-2679-2019.

Yang Z and F Dominguez. 2019. "Investigating land surface effect on the moisture transport over South America with a moisture tagging model." Journal of Climate, 32(19), 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0700.1.

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Hiranuma N, K Adachi, D Bell, F Belosi, H Beydoun, B Bhaduri, H Bingemer, C Budke, H Clemen, F Conen, K Cory, J Curtius, P DeMott, O Eppers, S Grawe, S Hartmann, N Hoffmann, K Höhler, E Jantsch, A Kiselev, T Koop, G Kulkarni, A Mayer, M Murakami, B Murray, A Nicosia, M Petters, M Piazza, M Polen, N Reicher, Y Rudich, A Saito, G Santachiara, T Schiebel, G Schill, J Schneider, L Segev, E Stopelli, R Sullivan, K Suski, M Szakáll, T Tajiri, H Taylor, Y Tobo, R Ullrich, D Weber, H Wex, T Whale, C Whiteside, K Yamashita, A Zelenyuk, and O Möhler. 2019. "A comprehensive characterization of ice nucleation by three different types of cellulose particles immersed in water." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19(7), 10.5194/acp-19-4823-2019.

Pye H, E D’Ambro, B Lee, S Schobesberger, M Takeuchi, Y Zhao, F Lopez-Hilfiker, J Liu, J Shilling, J Xing, R Mathur, A Middlebrook, J Liao, A Welti, M Graus, C Warneke, J de Gouw, J Holloway, T Ryerson, I Pollack, and J Thornton. 2019. "Anthropogenic enhancements to production of highly oxygenated molecules from autoxidation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(14), 10.1073/pnas.1810774116.

Shrivastava M, M Andreae, P Artaxo, H Barbosa, L Berg, J Brito, J Ching, R Easter, J Fan, J Fast, Z Feng, J Fuentes, M Glasius, A Goldstein, E Alves, H Gomes, D Gu, A Guenther, S Jathar, S Kim, Y Liu, S Lou, S Martin, V McNeill, A Medeiros, S de Sá, J Shilling, S Springston, R Souza, J Thornton, G Isaacman-VanWertz, L Yee, R Ynoue, R Zaveri, A Zelenyuk, and C Zhao. 2019. "Urban pollution greatly enhances formation of natural aerosols over the Amazon rainforest." Nature Communications, 10(1), 1046, 10.1038/s41467-019-08909-4.

Riva M, L Heikkinen, D Bell, O Peräkylä, Q Zha, S Schallhart, M Rissanen, D Imre, T Petäjä, J Thornton, A Zelenyuk, and M Ehn. 2019. "Chemical transformations in monoterpene-derived organic aerosol enhanced by inorganic composition." npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 2(1), 10.1038/s41612-018-0058-0.

Wang J, J Shilling, J Liu, A Zelenyuk, D Bell, M Petters, R Thalman, F Mei, R Zaveri, and G Zheng. 2019. "Cloud droplet activation of secondary organic aerosol is mainly controlled by molecular weight, not water solubility." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19(2), 10.5194/acp-19-941-2019.

Han B, J Fan, A Varble, H Morrison, C Williams, B Chen, X Dong, S Giangrande, A Khain, E Mansell, J Milbrandt, J Shpund, and G Thompson. 2019. "Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison of an MC3E Squall Line Case: Part II. Stratiform Precipitation Properties." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(2), 10.1029/2018JD029596.

Suski K, D Bell, N Hiranuma, O Möhler, D Imre, and A Zelenyuk. 2018. "Activation of intact bacteria and bacterial fragments mixed with agar as cloud droplets and ice crystals in cloud chamber experiments." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(23), 10.5194/acp-18-17497-2018.

Fast J, L Berg, L Alexander, D Bell, E D’Ambro, J Hubbe, C Kuang, J Liu, C Long, A Matthews, F Mei, R Newsom, M Pekour, T Pinterich, B Schmid, S Schobesberger, J Shilling, J Smith, S Springston, K Suski, J Thornton, J Tomlinson, J Wang, H Xiao, and A Zelenyuk. 2018. "Overview of the HI-SCALE Field Campaign: A New Perspective on Shallow Convective Clouds." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100(5), 10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0030.1.

Liu D, B Yang, Y Zhang, Y Qian, A Huang, Y Zhou, and L Zhang. 2018. "Combined impacts of convection and microphysics parameterizations on the simulations of precipitation and cloud properties over Asia." Atmospheric Research, 212, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2018.05.017.

Zhang H, M Wang, Z Guo, C Zhou, T Zhou, Y Qian, V Larson, S Ghan, M Ovchinnikov, P Bogenschutz, and A Gettelman. 2018. "Low‐Cloud Feedback in CAM5‐CLUBB: Physical Mechanisms and Parameter Sensitivity Analysis." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10(11), 10.1029/2018MS001423.

Glasius M, M Bering, L Yee, S de Sá, G Isaacman-VanWertz, R Wernis, H Barbosa, M Alexander, B Palm, W Hu, P Campuzano-Jost, D Day, J Jimenez, M Shrivastava, S Martin, and A Goldstein. 2018. "Organosulfates in aerosols downwind of an urban region in central Amazon." Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 20(11), 10.1039/C8EM00413G.

DeMott P, O Möhler, D Cziczo, N Hiranuma, M Petters, S Petters, F Belosi, H Bingemer, S Brooks, C Budke, M Burkert-Kohn, K Collier, A Danielczok, O Eppers, L Felgitsch, S Garimella, H Grothe, P Herenz, T Hill, K Höhler, Z Kanji, A Kiselev, T Koop, T Kristensen, K Krüger, G Kulkarni, E Levin, B Murray, A Nicosia, D O'Sullivan, A Peckhaus, M Polen, H Price, N Reicher, D Rothenberg, Y Rudich, G Santachiara, T Schiebel, J Schrod, T Seifried, F Stratmann, R Sullivan, K Suski, M Szakáll, H Taylor, R Ullrich, J Vergara-Temprado, R Wagner, T Whale, D Weber, A Welti, T Wilson, M Wolf, and J Zenker. 2018. "The Fifth International Workshop on Ice Nucleation phase 2 (FIN-02): laboratory intercomparison of ice nucleation measurements." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11(11), 10.5194/amt-11-6231-2018.

Sharma N, S China, J Bhandari, K Gorkowski, M Dubey, R Zaveri, and C Mazzoleni. 2018. "Physical Properties of Aerosol Internally Mixed With Soot Particles in a Biogenically Dominated Environment in California." Geophysical Research Letters, 45(20), 10.1029/2018GL079404.

D’Ambro E, S Schobesberger, R Zaveri, J Shilling, B Lee, F Lopez-Hilfiker, C Mohr, and J Thornton. 2018. "Isothermal Evaporation of α-Pinene Ozonolysis SOA: Volatility, Phase State, and Oligomeric Composition." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, 2(10), 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00084.

Sarangi C, V Kanawade, S Tripathi, A Thomas, and D Ganguly. 2018. "Aerosol-induced intensification of cooling effect of clouds during Indian summer monsoon." Nature Communications, 9(1), 10.1038/s41467-018-06015-5.

Gibbons M, Q Min, and J Fan. 2018. "Investigating the impacts of Saharan dust on tropical deep convection using spectral bin microphysics." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(16), 10.5194/acp-18-12161-2018.

Sakaguchi K, L Leung, C Burleyson, H Xiao, and H Wan. 2018. "Role of Troposphere‐Convection‐Land Coupling in the Southwestern Amazon Precipitation Bias of the Community Earth System Model Version 1 (CESM1)." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(16), 10.1029/2018JD028999.

de Sá S, B Palm, P Campuzano-Jost, D Day, W Hu, G Isaacman-VanWertz, L Yee, J Brito, S Carbone, I Ribeiro, G Cirino, Y Liu, R Thalman, A Sedlacek, A Funk, C Schumacher, J Shilling, J Schneider, P Artaxo, A Goldstein, R Souza, J Wang, K McKinney, H Barbosa, M Alexander, J Jimenez, and S Martin. 2018. "Urban influence on the concentration and composition of submicron particulate matter in central Amazonia." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(16), 10.5194/acp-18-12185-2018.

Barnes H, J Zagrodnik, L McMurdie, A Rowe, and R Houze. 2018. "Kelvin–Helmholtz Waves in Precipitating Midlatitude Cyclones." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 75(8), 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0365.1.

Shilling J, M Pekour, E Fortner, P Artaxo, S de Sá, J Hubbe, K Longo, L Machado, S Martin, S Springston, J Tomlinson, and J Wang. 2018. "Aircraft observations of the chemical composition and aging of aerosol in the Manaus urban plume during GoAmazon 2014/5." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(14), 10.5194/acp-18-10773-2018.

Kleiss J, E Riley, C Long, L Riihimaki, L Berg, V Morris, and E Kassianov. 2018. "Cloud Area Distributions of Shallow Cumuli: A New Method for Ground-Based Images." Atmosphere, 9(7), 10.3390/atmos9070258.

Xing L, M Shrivastava, T Fu, P Roldin, Y Qian, L Xu, N Ng, J Shilling, A Zelenyuk, and C Cappa. 2018. " Parameterized Yields of Semivolatile Products from Isoprene Oxidation under Different NO Levels: Impacts of Chemical Aging and Wall-Loss of Reactive Gases ." Environmental Science & Technology, 52(16), 10.1021/acs.est.8b00373.

Kassianov E, L Berg, M Pekour, J Barnard, D Chand, J Comstock, C Flynn, A Sedlacek, J Shilling, H Telg, J Tomlinson, A Zelenyuk, and J Fast. 2018. "A Closure Study of Total Scattering Using Airborne In Situ Measurements from the Winter Phase of TCAP." Atmosphere, 9(6), 228, 10.3390/atmos9060228.

Girotto G, S China, J Bhandari, K Gorkowski, B Scarnato, T Capek, A Marinoni, D Veghte, G Kulkarni, A Aiken, M Dubey, and C Mazzoleni. 2018. "Fractal-like Tar Ball Aggregates from Wildfire Smoke." Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 5(6), 10.1021/acs.estlett.8b00229.

Bela M, M Barth, O Toon, A Fried, C Ziegler, K Cummings, Y Li, K Pickering, C Homeyer, H Morrison, Q Yang, R Mecikalski, L Carey, M Biggerstaff, D Betten, and A Alford. 2018. "Effects of scavenging, entrainment, and aqueous chemistry on peroxides and formaldehyde in deep convective outflow over the central and Southeast U.S." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(14), 10.1029/2018JD028271.

Xiao H, L Berg, and M Huang. 2018. "The Impact of Surface Heterogeneities and Land-Atmosphere Interactions on Shallow Clouds Over ARM SGP Site." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10(6), 10.1029/2018MS001286.

Machado L, A Calheiros, T Biscaro, S Giangrande, M Silva Dias, M Cecchini, R Albrecht, M Andreae, W Araujo, P Artaxo, S Borrmann, R Braga, C Burleyson, C Eichholz, J Fan, Z Feng, G Fisch, M Jensen, S Martin, U Pöschl, C Pöhlker, M Pöhlker, J Ribaud, D Rosenfeld, J Saraiva, C Schumacher, R Thalman, D Walter, and M Wendisch. 2018. "Overview: Precipitation characteristics and sensitivities to environmental conditions during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(9), 10.5194/acp-18-6461-2018.

Atkinson D, M Pekour, D Chand, J Radney, K Kolesar, Q Zhang, A Setyan, NT O'Neill, and C Cappa. 2018. "Using spectral methods to obtain particle size information from optical data: applications to measurements from CARES 2010." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(8), 10.5194/acp-18-5499-2018.

Burleyson C, S Hagos, Z Feng, B Kerns, and D Kim. 2018. "Large-Scale Environmental Characteristics of MJOs that Strengthen and Weaken Over the Maritime Continent." Journal of Climate, 31(14), 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0576.1.

Morcrette C, K Van Weverberg, H Ma, M Ahlgrimm, E Bazile, L Berg, A Cheng, F Cheruy, J Cole, R Forbes, W Gustafson, M Huang, W Lee, Y Liu, L Mellul, W Merryfield, Y Qian, R Roehrig, Y Wang, S Xie, K Xu, C Zhang, S Klein, and J Petch. 2018. "Introduction to CAUSES: Description of Weather and Climate Models and Their Near-Surface Temperature Errors in 5 day Hindcasts Near the Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(5), doi:10.1002/2017JD027199.

Ma H, S Klein, S Xie, C Zhang, S Tang, Q Tang, C Morcrette, K Van Weverberg, J Petch, M Ahlgrimm, L Berg, F Cheruy, J Cole, R Forbes, W Gustafson, M Huang, Y Liu, W Merryfield, Y Qian, R Roehrig, and Y Wang. 2018. "CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error over the Central United States." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(5), 10.1002/2017JD027194.

Zagrodnik J, L McMurdie, and R Houze. 2018. "Stratiform Precipitation Processes in Cyclones Passing over a Coastal Mountain Range." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 75(3), 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0168.1.

Stamnes S, C Hostetler, R Ferrare, S Burton, X Liu, J Hair, Y Hu, A Wasilewski, W Martin, B van Diedenhoven, J Chowdhary, I Cetinić, L Berg, K Stamnes, and B Cairns. 2018. "Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the “MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products." Applied Optics, 57(10), 10.1364/AO.57.002394.

Van Weverberg K, C Morcrette, J Petch, S Klein, H Ma, C Zhang, S Xie, Q Tang, W Gustafson Jr, Y Qian, L Berg, Y Liu, M Huang, M Ahlgrimm, R Forbes, E Bazile, R Roehrig, J Cole, W Merryfield, W Lee, F Cheruy, L Mellul, Y Wang, K Johnson, and M Thieman. 2018. "CAUSES: Attribution of Surface Radiation Biases in NWP and Climate Models near the U.S. Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(7), 10.1002/2017JD027188.

Kulkarni G. 2018. "Immersion Freezing of Total Ambient Aerosols and Ice Residuals." Atmosphere, 9(2), 10.3390/atmos9020055.

Hagos S, Z Feng, R Plant, R Houze, and H Xiao. 2018. "A Stochastic Framework for Modeling the Population Dynamics of Convective Clouds." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10(2), 10.1002/2017MS001214.

Fan J, D Rosenfeld, Y Zhang, S Giangrande, Z Li, L Machado, S Martin, Y Yang, J Wang, P Artaxo, H Barbosa, R Braga, J Comstock, Z Feng, W Gao, H Gomes, F Mei, C Pöhlker, M Pöhlker, U Pöschl, and R de Souza. 2018. "Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles." Science, 359(6374), 10.1126/science.aan8461.

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