Properties and Controlling Processes of Aerosol and Cloud Condensation Nuclei in Marine Boundary Layer Over Eastern North Atlantic


Principal Investigator

Jian Wang — Washington University in St. Louis


Xiaohong Liu — Texas A&M University


Remote marine low cloud systems have large spatial and temporal coverages. Because of their relatively low optical thickness and background aerosol concentrations, marine low clouds are particularly susceptible to perturbations in aerosols associated with anthropogenic emissions. Recent studies show that a large fraction of the global aerosol indirect forcing can be attributed to changes in marine low clouds, despite their relatively long distance from most anthropogenic sources. Currently, there remain large uncertainties in the magnitude of the global aerosol indirect radiative forcing. One major contribution to this large uncertainty derives from poor understanding of the aerosols under natural conditions, the perturbation by anthropogenic emissions, and the processes that drive them.

The objective of this project is to (1) quantify the properties and processes of marine boundary layer aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei in the Eastern North Atlantic for different seasons, representative synoptic states and airmasses; and (2) to evaluate and improve the representation of marine boundary layer aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei in the Department of Energy’s Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM). The overall approach is to synergistically combine in situ measurements, remote sensing retrievals, and model simulations. We will take advantage of the comprehensive, multi-dimensional characterization of meteorological parameters, trace gases, aerosol, cloud, and drizzle fields during the recent Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) and the long-term measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility Eastern North Atlantic site on Graciosa Island in the Azores.

This project will produce three outcomes: (1) quantification of aerosol properties in the Eastern North Atlantic, their vertical profiles, and variations with season, synoptic state, and airmass; (2) predictive understanding of key aerosol processes, including entrainment of free troposphere aerosol into marine boundary layer, new particle formation, growth of Aitken mode particles, and sea spray aerosol production, and the influences of these processes on the cloud condensation nuclei population in marine boundary layer; and (3) evaluation and improvement of the representation of key aerosol processes in E3SM. These outcomes will improve the capability of E3SM to predict aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei properties in marine boundary layer under natural conditions and the influence from anthropogenic emissions, and therefore aerosol indirect effects.

Related Publications

Knopf D, P Wang, B Wong, J Tomlin, D Veghte, N Lata, S China, A Laskin, R Moffet, J Aller, M Marcus, and J Wang. 2023. "Physicochemical characterization of free troposphere and marine boundary layer ice-nucleating particles collected by aircraft in the eastern North Atlantic." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 23(15), 10.5194/acp-23-8659-2023.

Zhao B, J Fast, M Shrivastava, N Donahue, Y Gao, J Shilling, Y Liu, R Zaveri, B Gaudet, S Wang, J Wang, Z Li, and J Fan. 2022. "Formation Process of Particles and Cloud Condensation Nuclei Over the Amazon Rainforest: The Role of Local and Remote New‐Particle Formation." Geophysical Research Letters, 49(22), e2022GL100940, 10.1029/2022GL100940.

Beck I, H Angot, A Baccarini, L Dada, L Quéléver, T Jokinen, T Laurila, M Lampimäki, N Bukowiecki, M Boyer, X Gong, M Gysel-Beer, T Petäjä, J Wang, and J Schmale. 2022. "Automated identification of local contamination in remote atmospheric composition time series." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 15(14), 10.5194/amt-15-4195-2022.

Knopf D, J Charnawskas, P Wang, J Tomlin, K Jankowski, M Fraund, D Veghte, S China, A Laskin, R Moffet, M Gilles, M Marcus, S Raveh-Rubin, and J Wang. 2022. "Micro-spectroscopic and freezing characterization of ice-nucleating particles collected in the marine boundary layer in the eastern North Atlantic." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22(8), 10.5194/acp-22-5377-2022.

Wang J, R Wood, M Jensen, J Chiu, Y Liu, K Lamer, N Desai, S Giangrande, D Knopf, P Kollias, A Laskin, X Liu, C Lu, D Mechem, F Mei, M Starzec, J Tomlinson, Y Wang, S Yum, G Zheng, A Aiken, E Azevedo, Y Blanchard, S China, X Dong, F Gallo, S Gao, V Ghate, S Glienke, L Goldberger, J Hardin, C Kuang, E Luke, A Matthews, M Miller, R Moffet, M Pekour, B Schmid, A Sedlacek, R Shaw, J Shilling, A Sullivan, K Suski, D Veghte, R Weber, M Wyant, J Yeom, M Zawadowicz, and Z Zhang. 2022. "Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA)." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 103(2), 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0220.1.

Zaveri R, J Wang, J Fan, Y Zhang, J Shilling, A Zelenyuk, F Mei, R Newsom, M Pekour, J Tomlinson, J Comstock, M Shrivastava, E Fortner, L Machado, P Artaxo, and S Martin. 2022. "Rapid growth of anthropogenic organic nanoparticles greatly alters cloud life cycle in the Amazon rainforest." Science Advances, 8(2), 10.1126/sciadv.abj0329.

Tomlin J, K Jankowski, D Veghte, S China, P Wang, M Fraund, J Weis, G Zheng, Y Wang, F Rivera-Adorno, S Raveh-Rubin, D Knopf, J Wang, M Gilles, R Moffet, and A Laskin. 2021. "Impact of dry intrusion events on the composition and mixing state of particles during the winter Aerosol and Cloud Experiment in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA)." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(24), 10.5194/acp-21-18123-2021.

Yeom J, S Yum, R Shaw, I La, J Wang, C Lu, Y Liu, F Mei, B Schmid, and A Matthews. 2021. "Vertical variations of cloud microphysical relationships in marine stratocumulus clouds observed during the ACE‐ENA campaign." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(24), e2021JD034700, 10.1029/2021JD034700.

Mei F, J Wang, S Zhou, Q Zhang, S Collier, and J Xu. 2021. "Measurement report: Cloud condensation nuclei activity and its variation with organic oxidation level and volatility observed during an aerosol life cycle intensive operational period (ALC-IOP)." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(17), 10.5194/acp-21-13019-2021.

Nah T, J Yang, J Wang, A Sullivan, and R Weber. 2021. "Fine Aerosol Acidity and Water during Summer in the Eastern North Atlantic." Atmosphere, 12(8), 10.3390/atmos12081040.

Wang Y, G Zheng, M Jensen, D Knopf, A Laskin, A Matthews, D Mechem, F Mei, R Moffet, A Sedlacek, J Shilling, S Springston, A Sullivan, J Tomlinson, D Veghte, R Weber, R Wood, M Zawadowicz, and J Wang. 2021. "Vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic: variations with season and synoptic condition." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(14), 10.5194/acp-21-11079-2021.

Hodshire A, A Akherati, D Farmer, S Jathar, S Kreidenweis, T Onasch, S Springston, J Wang, Y Wang, L Kleinman, A Sedlacek III, and J Pierce. 2021. "Dilution impacts on smoke aging: evidence in Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) data." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(9), 10.5194/acp-21-6839-2021.

Zawadowicz M, K Suski, J Liu, M Pekour, J Fast, F Mei, A Sedlacek, S Springston, Y Wang, R Zaveri, R Wood, J Wang, and J Shilling. 2021. "Aircraft measurements of aerosol and trace gas chemistry in the eastern North Atlantic." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(10), 10.5194/acp-21-7983-2021.

Zhang Z, Q Song, D Mechem, V Larson, J Wang, Y Liu, M Witte, X Dong, and P Wu. 2021. "Vertical dependence of horizontal variation of cloud microphysics: observations from the ACE-ENA field campaign and implications for warm-rain simulation in climate models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(4), 10.5194/acp-21-3103-2021.

Zhao B, J Fast, N Donahue, M Shrivastava, M Schervish, J Shilling, H Gordon, J Wang, Y Gao, R Zaveri, Y Liu, and B Gaudet. 2021. "Impact of Urban Pollution on Organic-Mediated New-Particle Formation and Particle Number Concentration in the Amazon Rainforest." Environmental Science & Technology, 55(8), 10.1021/acs.est.0c07465.

Desai N, Y Liu, S Glienke, R Shaw, C Lu, J Wang, and S Gao. 2021. "Vertical variation of turbulent entrainment mixing processes in marine stratocumulus clouds using high resolution digital holography." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(7), e2020JD033527, 10.1029/2020JD033527.

McGraw R and J Wang. 2021. "Surfactants and cloud droplet activation: A systematic extension of Köhler theory based on analysis of droplet stability." The Journal of Chemical Physics, 154(2), 024707, 10.1063/5.0031436.

Zheng G, Y Wang, R Wood, M Jensen, C Kuang, I Mccoy, A Matthews, F Mei, J Tomlinson, J Shilling, M Zawadowicz, E Crosbie, R Moore, L Ziemba, M Andreae, and J Wang. 2021. "New particle formation in the remote marine boundary layer." Nature Communications, 12(1), 10.1038/s41467-020-20773-1.

Chiu J, C Yang, P van Leeuwen, G Feingold, R Wood, Y Blanchard, F Mei, and J Wang. 2020. "Observational constraints on warm cloud microphysical processes using machine learning and optimization techniques." Geophysical Research Letters, 48(2), e2020GL091236, 10.1029/2020GL091236.

Zheng G, C Kuang, J Uin, T Watson, and J Wang. 2020. "Large contribution of organics to condensational growth and formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the remote marine boundary layer." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(21), 10.5194/acp-20-12515-2020.

Kleinman L, A Sedlacek III, K Adachi, P Buseck, S Collier, M Dubey, A Hodshire, E Lewis, T Onasch, J Pierce, J Shilling, S Springston, J Wang, Q Zhang, S Zhou, and R Yokelson. 2020. "Rapid evolution of aerosol particles and their optical properties downwind of wildfires in the western US." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(21), 10.5194/acp-20-13319-2020.

Zhao B, M Shrivastava, N Donahue, H Gordon, M Schervish, J Shilling, R Zaveri, J Wang, M Andreae, C Zhao, B Gaudet, Y Liu, J Fan, and J Fast. 2020. "High concentration of ultrafine particles in the Amazon free troposphere produced by organic new particle formation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(41), 10.1073/pnas.2006716117.

Zheng G, A Sedlacek, A Aiken, Y Feng, T Watson, S Raveh-Rubin, J Uin, E Lewis, and J Wang. 2020. "Long-range transported North American wildfire aerosols observed in marine boundary layer of eastern North Atlantic." Environment International, 139, 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105680.

Gallo F, J Uin, S Springston, J Wang, G Zheng, C Kuang, R Wood, E Azevedo, A McComiskey, F Mei, A Theisen, J Kyrouac, and A Aiken. 2020. "Identifying a regional aerosol baseline in the eastern North Atlantic using collocated measurements and a mathematical algorithm to mask high-submicron-number-concentration aerosol events." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(12), 10.5194/acp-20-7553-2020.

Gao S, C Lu, Y Liu, F Mei, J Wang, L Zhu, and S Yan. 2020. "Contrasting Scale Dependence of Entrainment‐Mixing Mechanisms in Stratocumulus Clouds." Geophysical Research Letters, 47(9), e2020GL086970, 10.1029/2020GL086970.

Mei F, J Wang, J Comstock, R Weigel, M Krämer, C Mahnke, J Shilling, J Schneider, C Schulz, C Long, M Wendisch, L Machado, B Schmid, T Krisna, M Pekour, J Hubbe, A Giez, B Weinzierl, M Zoeger, M Pöhlker, H Schlager, M Cecchini, M Andreae, S Martin, S de Sá, J Fan, J Tomlinson, S Springston, U Pöschl, P Artaxo, C Pöhlker, T Klimach, A Minikin, A Afchine, and S Borrmann. 2020. "Comparison of aircraft measurements during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 13(2), 10.5194/amt-13-661-2020.