Process-level AdvancementS of Climate through Cloud and Aerosol Lifecycle Studies (PASCCALS) Science Focus Area

 

Principal Investigators

Michael Jensen — Brookhaven National Laboratory
V. Rao Kotamarthi — Argonne National Laboratory
Arthur Sedlacek III — Brookhaven National Laboratory
Andrew Vogelmann — Brookhaven National Laboratory

Co-Investigators

Maria Cadeddu — Argonne National Laboratory Yangang Liu — Brookhaven National Laboratory
Ogochukwu Enekwizu — Brookhaven National Laboratory Edward Luke — Brookhaven National Laboratory
Yan Feng — Argonne National Laboratory Olga Mayol-Bracero — Brookhaven National Laboratory
Virendra Ghate — Argonne National Laboratory Allison McComiskey — Brookhaven National Laboratory
Scott Giangrande — Brookhaven National Laboratory Robert McGraw — Brookhaven National Laboratory
Robert Jackson — Argonne National Laboratory Jungmin Park — Brookhaven National Laboratory
Pavlos Kollias — Brookhaven National Laboratory Dié Wang — Brookhaven National Laboratory
Chongai Kuang — Brookhaven National Laboratory Fan Yang — Brookhaven National Laboratory
Katia Lamer — Brookhaven National Laboratory Maria Zawadowicz — Brookhaven National Laboratory
Ernie Lewis — Brookhaven National Laboratory Susan van den Heever — Colorado State University

Abstract

The ability to further improve the predictability of climate change and its associated impacts depends on improving our understanding of how aerosols and clouds influence Earth’s energy budget. The magnitudes of these impacts are determined by the evolution of aerosol and cloud properties and are driven by processes operating over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. A deeper understanding of the processes that drive aerosol and cloud lifecycles is therefore critical for improving representation of aerosol-cloud-climate forcing and feedback in large-scale models and reducing outstanding uncertainties. Towards achieving this deeper understanding, the Process-level AdvancementS of Climate through Cloud and Aerosol Lifecycle Studies (PASCCALS) Science Plan guides the activities of the research team from Brookhaven National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to advance process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions to reduce associated uncertainties in determining climate forcings and feedbacks. The research is conducted within five interconnected themes: (1) Aerosol Formation, Growth and Contribution to Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN), (2) Reducing Uncertainty in Aerosol-Radiation Interactions: Biomass Burning Aerosols and Beyond, (3) Cloud Processes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer, (4) Convective Cloud Dynamics and Microphysics and (5) Two-way Aerosol-Convection Interactions during the TRACER Campaign.

Aerosol Formation, Growth and Contribution to Cloud Condensation Nuclei – New particle formation (NPF) by nucleation of gas phase species significantly influences the size distributions and number concentrations of atmospheric aerosol particles. The fundamental understanding of the pathways for NPF to CCN remains mostly unknown. Since cloud droplet activation normally occurs on particles with diameters of 50 – 100 nm, the key to understanding the impact of NPF on climate lies in the ability to predict not only the rate of formation, but also the subsequent growth rates, of new particles. This research area focuses on developing the fundamental science of particle formation and growth and the representation of these processes in climate models where they are sub-grid scale and hence heavily parameterized.  A key investigative focus of this activity is on determining the critical gas-phase precursors that drive NPF and improving understanding the spatial distribution and timing of NPF throughout the boundary layer.

Reducing Uncertainty in Aerosol-Radiation Interactions: Biomass Burning Aerosols and Beyond – Natural and anthropogenic aerosols perturb Earth’s energy balance by absorbing or scattering incoming solar radiation, altering cloud properties and precipitation behavior, and perturbing atmospheric circulation dynamics. While great strides have been made in uncovering the underlying processes that drive these effects, aerosol radiative forcing uncertainties from absorbing aerosols remain stubbornly high. This portion of the project focuses on reducing some of these uncertainties, with the main emphasis being on those involving biomass burning aerosols (BBA). We investigate aging processes of BBA properties that occur near-source and during long-range transport of BBA, and the interactions between BBA and clouds. Additionally, we will begin a new research direction in coarse mode aerosols, a class that poses challenges in characterization, that is generally under-sampled, and poorly represented in models. Because of their large size, coarse-mode aerosol particles can provide large contributions to aerosol direct effects in both shortwave and longwave, even with small number concentrations, and they can also serve as giant CCN and efficient ice nucleating particles.

Cloud Processes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer – Recent Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 results indicate that the climate model sensitivity has increased from previous assessments with a statistically higher sensitivity range compared to previous assessments. This increase in climate model sensitivity resulted from shortwave low-cloud feedback, from model representations of marine boundary layer clouds and particularly extratropical mixed-phase clouds. These clouds systems are also strongly influenced by aerosol-cloud interactions, which yield the largest uncertainty in climate forcing. Aerosol-cloud interactions are strongly controlled by the vertical velocity of cloud-scale updrafts and entrainment in deep convective systems that lack needed observational constraints. In this project we address these challenges through process-level studies that combine unique retrieval and analysis capabilities with theory and modeling. With the maturity of these activities on different components of boundary layer cloud research during previous project cycles, we are now poised to start combining this accumulated understanding to form a holistic picture of the boundary layer processes.

Convective Cloud Dynamics and Microphysics – Convective clouds play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, moisture, momentum, and chemical species throughout the depth of the troposphere and provide an important driver for the large-scale atmospheric circulation. Additionally, convective clouds influence the atmospheric energy balance through diabatic heating, provide the primary contribution to precipitation and precipitation extremes, and remotely influence environments that determine lower cloud feedbacks to climate sensitivity. Despite the importance of these cloud systems, their accurate representation, at various scales, in atmospheric models remains a challenge. A key element that would improve simulation of these clouds is a better quantification and parameterization of convective updraft microphysics and dynamics, including their interaction with the surrounding environmental and with mesoscale storm organization.

Two-way Aerosol-Convection Interactions during the TRACER Campaign – To understand the two-way interaction of atmospheric aerosols and convection, particularly: (1) the potential role of aerosols in the invigoration of convective updrafts, (2) the associated influence on cloud areal coverage and precipitation amount, and (3) the subsequent feedbacks, through vertical transport, on the boundary layer population of aerosol particles and cloud condensation nuclei, we leverage the complementary expertise within the PASCCALS team to execute an integrated research approach using observations from the TRacking Aerosol Convection interactions ExpeRiment (TRACER) with  contributions from aerosol and cloud scientists that includes observationalists, theoreticians, and modelers. Specifically, the team expertise will be aimed at:

  • Determining the processes that drive the characteristics of the local aerosol population including the size, number, optical and chemical properties, and associated water-uptake;
  • Quantifying the environmental drivers of convective cloud buoyancy, vertical velocity, entrainment and cloud lifecycle;
  • Quantifying the microphysical impacts of variations in the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei on convective precipitation formation; and
  • Determining the feedback of the convective cloud system on the environment including the vertical transport of atmospheric aerosols.

The PASCCALS team employs a multi-scale approach with an emphasis on fundamental process scales that range from molecular scales to microphysical and eddy-resolving scales, to cloud-resolving scales, and finally to global scales. The objectives outlined in this science plan will be met by the PASCCALS science team and external partners by employing a combination of approaches including the analysis of data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) user facility (fixed site, mobile facility and aerial facility) and external datasets, laboratory measurements, theoretical development, high-resolution modeling and large-scale modeling.

Illustration of the primary PASCCALS research topics and their interconnections.

Related Publications

Lu Z, Y Han, and Y Liu. 2022. "Occurrence of Warm Freezing Rain: Observation and Modelling Study." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127(5), e2021JD036242, 10.1029/2021JD036242.

Fung K, C Heald, J Kroll, S Wang, D Jo, A Gettelman, Z Lu, X Liu, R Zaveri, E Apel, D Blake, J Jimenez, P Campuzano-Jost, P Veres, T Bates, J Shilling, and M Zawadowicz. 2022. "Exploring dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation and implications for global aerosol radiative forcing." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22(2), 10.5194/acp-22-1549-2022.

Silber I, R Jackson, A Fridlind, A Ackerman, S Collis, J Verlinde, and J Ding. 2022. "The Earth Model Column Collaboratory (EMC2) v1.1: an open-source ground-based lidar and radar instrument simulator and subcolumn generator for large-scale models." Geoscientific Model Development, 15(2), 10.5194/gmd-15-901-2022.

Wang D, M Jensen, D Taylor, G Kowalski, M Hogan, B Wittemann, A Rakotoarivony, S Giangrande, and J Park. 2022. "Linking synoptic patterns to cloud properties and local circulations over southeastern Texas." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127(5), e2021JD035920, 10.1029/2021JD035920.

Asher E, T Thornberry, D Fahey, A McComiskey, K Carslaw, S Grunau, K Chang, H Telg, P Chen, and R Gao. 2022. "A Novel Network‐Based Approach to Determining Measurement Representation Error for Model Evaluation of Aerosol Microphysical Properties." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127(3), 10.1029/2021JD035485.

Adachi K, J Dibb, E Scheuer, J Katich, J Schwarz, A Perring, B Mediavilla, H Guo, P Campuzano‐Jost, J Jimenez, J Crawford, A Soja, N Oshima, M Kajino, T Kinase, L Kleinman, A Sedlacek, R Yokelson, and P Buseck. 2022. "Fine Ash‐Bearing Particles as a Major Aerosol Component in Biomass Burning Smoke." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127(2), e2021JD035657, 10.1029/2021JD035657.

Galewsky J, M Jensen, and J Delp. 2022. "Marine Boundary Layer Decoupling and the Stable Isotopic Composition of Water Vapor." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127(3), e2021JD035470, 10.1029/2021JD035470.

Kalesse-Los H, W Schimmel, E Luke, and P Seifert. 2022. "Evaluating cloud liquid detection against Cloudnet using cloud radar Doppler spectra in a pre-trained artificial neural network." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 15(2), 10.5194/amt-15-279-2022.

Jensen MP, JH Flynn, LM Judd, P Kollias, C Kuang, G McFarquhar, R Nadkarni, H Powers, and J Sullivan. 2022. "A Succession of Cloud, Precipitation, Aerosol and Air Quality Field Experiments in the Coastal Urban Environment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 103(2), 10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0104.1.

Diamond M, A Gettelman, M Lebsock, A McComiskey, L Russell, R Wood, and G Feingold. 2022. "Opinion: To assess marine cloud brightening's technical feasibility, we need to know what to study—and when to stop." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119(4), e2118379119, 10.1073/pnas.2118379119.

Thomas S, P Prabhakaran, F Yang, W Cantrell, and R Shaw. 2022. "Dimensionless parameters for cloudy Rayleigh-Bénard convection: Supersaturation, Damköhler, and Nusselt numbers." Physical Review Fluids, 7(1), 10.1103/physrevfluids.7.010503.

Howell S, S Freitag, A Dobracki, N Smirnow, and A Sedlacek III. 2021. "Undersizing of aged African biomass burning aerosol by an ultra-high-sensitivity aerosol spectrometer." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14(11), 10.5194/amt-14-7381-2021.

Galligani V, D Wang, P Corrales, and C Prigent. 2021. "A Parameterization of the Cloud Scattering Polarization Signal Derived From GPM Observations for Microwave Fast Radative Transfer Models." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 59(11), 10.1109/TGRS.2021.3049921.

Miller M, Z Mages, Q Zheng, L Trabachino, L Russell, J Shilling, and M Zawadowicz. 2021. "Observed Relationships between Cloud Droplet Effective Radius and Biogenic Gas Concentrations in Summertime Marine Stratocumulus over the Eastern North Atlantic." Earth and Space Science, 9(2), e2021EA001929, 10.1029/2021EA001929. ONLINE.

Yeom J, S Yum, R Shaw, I La, J Wang, C Lu, Y Liu, F Mei, B Schmid, and A Matthews. 2021. "Vertical variations of cloud microphysical relationships in marine stratocumulus clouds observed during the ACE‐ENA campaign." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(24), e2021JD034700, 10.1029/2021JD034700.

McFarquhar G, R Rauber, J O'Brien, S Gupta, M Segal-Rozenhaimer, A Dobracki, A Sedlacek, S Burton, S Howell, and S Freitag. 2021. "Observations of supermicron-sized aerosols originating from biomass burning in southern Central Africa." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(19), 10.5194/acp-21-14815-2021.

Shin H, L Xue, W Li, G Firl, D D’Amico, D Muñoz‐Esparza, M Ek, Y Chu, Z Wang, W Gustafson, and A Vogelmann. 2021. "Large‐Scale Forcing Impact on the Development of Shallow Convective Clouds Revealed from LASSO Large‐Eddy Simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(20), e2021JD035208, 10.1029/2021JD035208.

Jensen M, V Ghate, D Wang, D Apoznanski, M Bartholomew, S Giangrande, K Johnson, and M Thieman. 2021. "Contrasting characteristics of open- and closed-cellular stratocumulus cloud in the eastern North Atlantic." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(19), 10.5194/acp-21-14557-2021.

Wang J, Z Liu, I Foster, W Chang, R Kettimuthu, and V Kotamarthi. 2021. "Fast and accurate learned multiresolution dynamical downscaling for precipitation." Geoscientific Model Development, 14(10), 10.5194/gmd-14-6355-2021.

Ghate V, M Cadeddu, X Zheng, and E O'Connor. 2021. "Turbulence in the Marine Boundary Layer and Air Motions below Stratocumulus Clouds at the ARM Eastern North Atlantic Site." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 60(10), 10.1175/JAMC-D-21-0087.1.

Lewis E. 2021. "Optimal iteration and its application to some problems in aerosol science and particle dynamics." Aerosol Science and Technology, 55(11), 10.1080/02786826.2021.1961120.

Wang J, R Wood, M Jensen, J Chiu, Y Liu, K Lamer, N Desai, S Giangrande, D Knopf, P Kollias, A Laskin, X Liu, C Lu, D Mechem, F Mei, M Starzec, J Tomlinson, Y Wang, S Yum, G Zheng, A Aiken, E Azevedo, Y Blanchard, S China, X Dong, F Gallo, S Gao, V Ghate, S Glienke, L Goldberger, J Hardin, C Kuang, E Luke, A Matthews, M Miller, R Moffet, M Pekour, B Schmid, A Sedlacek, R Shaw, J Shilling, A Sullivan, K Suski, D Veghte, R Weber, M Wyant, J Yeom, M Zawadowicz, and Z Zhang. 2021. "Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA)." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, , 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0220.1. ONLINE.

Gao S, C Lu, Y Liu, S Yum, J Zhu, L Zhu, N Desai, Y Ma, and S Wu. 2021. "Comprehensive quantification of height dependence of entrainment mixing between stratiform cloud top and environment." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(14), 10.5194/acp-21-11225-2021.

Ghiz M, R Scott, A Vogelmann, J Lenaerts, M Lazzara, and D Lubin. 2021. "Energetics of surface melt in West Antarctica." The Cryosphere, 15(7), 10.5194/tc-15-3459-2021.

Braun R, A McComiskey, G Tselioudis, D Tropf, and A Sorooshian. 2021. "Cloud, Aerosol, and Radiative Properties over the Western North Atlantic Ocean." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(14), 10.1029/2020JD034113.

Roesch C, M Roesch, M Wolf, M Zawadowicz, R AlAloula, Z Awwad, and D Cziczo. 2021. "CCN and INP activity of middle eastern soil dust." Aeolian Research, 52, 10.1016/j.aeolia.2021.100729.

Xu X, C Sun, C Lu, Y Liu, G Zhang, and Q Chen. 2021. "Factors affecting entrainment rate in deep convective clouds and parameterizations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(15), e2021JD034881, 10.1029/2021JD034881.

Kalogeras P, A Battaglia, and P Kollias. 2021. "Supercooled Liquid Water Detection Capabilities from Ka-Band Doppler Profiling Radars: Moment-Based Algorithm Formulation and Assessment." Remote Sensing, 13(15), 10.3390/rs13152891.

Wu M, J Lee, D Wang, and M Salameh. 2021. "Suppressed Daytime Convection over the Amazon River." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(13), e2020JD033627, 10.1029/2020JD033627.

Wang Y, G Zheng, M Jensen, D Knopf, A Laskin, A Matthews, D Mechem, F Mei, R Moffet, A Sedlacek, J Shilling, S Springston, A Sullivan, J Tomlinson, D Veghte, R Weber, R Wood, M Zawadowicz, and J Wang. 2021. "Vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic: variations with season and synoptic condition." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(14), 10.5194/acp-21-11079-2021.

Zhu L, C Lu, S Yan, Y Liu, G Zhang, F Mei, B Zhu, J Fast, A Matthews, and M Pekour. 2021. "A new approach for simultaneous estimation of entrainment and detrainment rates in non‐precipitating shallow cumulus." Geophysical Research Letters, 48(15), e2021GL093817, 10.1029/2021GL093817.

Eissner J, D Mechem, M Jensen, and S Giangrande. 2021. "Factors Governing Cloud Growth and Entrainment Rates in Shallow Cumulus and Cumulus Congestus during GoAmazon2014/5." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(12), e2021JD034722, 10.1029/2021JD034722.

Enekwizu O, A Hasani, and A Khalizov. 2021. "Vapor Condensation and Coating Evaporation Are Both Responsible for Soot Aggregate Restructuring." Environmental Science & Technology, 55(13), 10.1021/acs.est.1c02391.

Romps D, R Öktem, S Endo, and A Vogelmann. 2021. "On the lifecycle of a shallow cumulus cloud: Is it a bubble or plume, active or forced?" Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 78(9), 10.1175/JAS-D-20-0361.1.

Biscaro T, L Machado, S Giangrande, and M Jensen. 2021. "What drives daily precipitation over the central Amazon? Differences observed between wet and dry seasons." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(9), 10.5194/acp-21-6735-2021.

Hodshire A, A Akherati, D Farmer, S Jathar, S Kreidenweis, T Onasch, S Springston, J Wang, Y Wang, L Kleinman, A Sedlacek III, and J Pierce. 2021. "Dilution impacts on smoke aging: evidence in Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) data." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(9), 10.5194/acp-21-6839-2021.

Zawadowicz M, K Suski, J Liu, M Pekour, J Fast, F Mei, A Sedlacek, S Springston, Y Wang, R Zaveri, R Wood, J Wang, and J Shilling. 2021. "Aircraft measurements of aerosol and trace gas chemistry in the eastern North Atlantic." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(10), 10.5194/acp-21-7983-2021.

Zhang T, W Lin, A Vogelmann, M Zhang, S Xie, Y Qin, and J Golaz. 2021. "Improving Convection Trigger Functions in Deep Convective Parameterization Schemes Using Machine Learning." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 13(5), e2020MS002365, 10.1029/2020MS002365.

Lin L, Q FU, X Liu, Y Shan, S Giangrande, G Elsaesser, K Yang, and D Wang. 2021. "Improved convective ice microphysics parameterization in the NCAR CAM model." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(9), e2020JD034157, 10.1029/2020JD034157.

Zhang Z, Q Song, D Mechem, V Larson, J Wang, Y Liu, M Witte, X Dong, and P Wu. 2021. "Vertical dependence of horizontal variation of cloud microphysics: observations from the ACE-ENA field campaign and implications for warm-rain simulation in climate models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(4), 10.5194/acp-21-3103-2021.

Singh J, N Singh, N Ojha, A Sharma, A Pozzer, N Kiran Kumar, K Rajeev, S Gunthe, and V Kotamarthi. 2021. "Effects of spatial resolution on WRF v3.8.1 simulated meteorology over the central Himalaya." Geoscientific Model Development, 14(3), 10.5194/gmd-14-1427-2021.

Riihimaki L, C Flynn, A McComiskey, D Lubin, Y Blanchard, J Chiu, G Feingold, D Feldman, J Gristey, C Herrera, G Hodges, E Kassianov, S LeBlanc, A Marshak, J Michalsky, P Pilewskie, S Schmidt, R Scott, Y Shea, K Thome, R Wagener, and B Wielicki. 2021. "The Shortwave Spectral Radiometer for Atmospheric Science: Capabilities and Applications from the ARM User Facility." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 102(3), 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0227.1.

Brown E, J Wang, and Y Feng. 2021. "US wildfire potential: a historical view and future projection using high-resolution climate data." Environmental Research Letters, 16(3), 10.1088/1748-9326/aba868.

Prein A, R Rasmussen, D Wang, and S Giangrande. 2021. "Sensitivity of organized convective storms to model grid spacing in current and future climates." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 379(2195), 10.1098/rsta.2019.0546.

Luke E, F Yang, P Kollias, A Vogelmann, and M Maahn. 2021. "New insights into ice multiplication using remote-sensing observations of slightly supercooled mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(13), 10.1073/pnas.2021387118.

Bruhwiler L, S Basu, J Butler, A Chatterjee, E Dlugokencky, M Kenney, A McComiskey, S Montzka, and D Stanitski. 2021. "Observations of greenhouse gases as climate indicators." Climatic Change, 165(1-2), 10.1007/s10584-021-03001-7.

Dou Y, J Quan, X Jia, and Y Liu. 2021. "Near‐Surface Warming Reduces Dew Frequency in China." Geophysical Research Letters, 48(7), 10.1029/2020GL091923.

Kotamarthi R, K Hayhoe, LO Mearns, D Wuebbles, J Jacobs, and J Jurado. 2021. Downscaling Techniques for High-Resolution Climate Projections: From Global Change to Local Impacts. Cambridge University Press.

Tao C, Y Zhang, Q Tang, H Ma, V Ghate, S Tang, S Xie, and J Santanello. 2021. "Land–Atmosphere Coupling at the U.S. Southern Great Plains: A Comparison on Local Convective Regimes between ARM Observations, Reanalysis, and Climate Model Simulations." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 22(2), 10.1175/JHM-D-20-0078.1.

Jackson R, S Collis, V Louf, A Protat, D Wang, S Giangrande, E Thompson, B Dolan, and S Powell. 2021. "The development of rainfall retrievals from radar at Darwin." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14(1), 10.5194/amt-14-53-2021.

Siebert H, K Szodry, U Egerer, B Wehner, S Henning, K Chevalier, J Lückerath, O Welz, K Weinhold, F Lauermann, M Gottschalk, A Ehrlich, M Wendisch, P Fialho, G Roberts, N Allwayin, S Schum, R Shaw, C Mazzoleni, L Mazzoleni, J Nowak, S Malinowski, K Karpinska, W Kumala, D Czyzewska, E Luke, P Kollias, R Wood, and J Mellado. 2021. "Observations of Aerosol, Cloud, Turbulence, and Radiation Properties at the Top of the Marine Boundary Layer over the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean: The ACORES Campaign." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 102(1), 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0191.1.

Cadeddu M, D Cimini, V Ghate, D Lubin, A Vogelmann, and I Silber. 2021. "Examination of Humidity and Ice Supersaturation Profiles over West Antarctica Using Ground-Based G-Band Radiometer Retrievals." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 60, 4102116, 10.1109/TGRS.2021.3077088.

McGraw R and J Wang. 2021. "Surfactants and cloud droplet activation: A systematic extension of Köhler theory based on analysis of droplet stability." The Journal of Chemical Physics, 154(2), 024707, 10.1063/5.0031436.

Zheng G, Y Wang, R Wood, M Jensen, C Kuang, I Mccoy, A Matthews, F Mei, J Tomlinson, J Shilling, M Zawadowicz, E Crosbie, R Moore, L Ziemba, M Andreae, and J Wang. 2021. "New particle formation in the remote marine boundary layer." Nature Communications, 12(1), 10.1038/s41467-020-20773-1.

Jeyaratnam J, Z Luo, S Giangrande, D Wang, and H Masunaga. 2020. "A Satellite‐Based Estimate of Convective Vertical Velocity and Convective Mass Flux: Global Survey and Comparison with Radar Wind Profiler Observations." Geophysical Research Letters, 48(1), e2020GL090675, 10.1029/2020GL090675.